Module Contents


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Learning Objectives

  1. To list the types of receptors that bind norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenergic receptors), and the relative affinity of each ligand for these receptors.
  2. To understand the effects of agonists and antagonists binding to adrenergic receptors.
  3. To appreciate how the baroreceptor reflex alters the initial effects of ligands binding to adrenergic receptors.
  4. To understand the types of cholinergic receptors, and how ligands binding to them affect the cardiovascular system.
  5. To define the following terms related to drug actions on the cardiovascular system:
    • Sympathomimetic
    • Sympatholytic
    • Chronotrope
    • Inotrope
  6. To apprehend the actions of the following drugs, and how they affect heart rate, cardiac contractility, and total peripheral resistance:
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Isoproterenol
    • Dobutamine
    • Clonidine
    • Prazosin / Doxazocin / Terazosin / Tamsulosin (α-1 receptor antagonists)
    • Phenoxybenzamine / Phentolamine (nonselective α receptor antagonists)
  7. To describe the effects of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia on the cardiac action potential and electrocardiogram.


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